In 1986, the Bradford NAACP and individual plaintiffs filed class actions against Bradford County, the School Board, and the City of Starke, claiming that their at-large elections diluted Black voting strength in violation of Sec. 2 of the Voting Rights Act. All three cases resulted in judgments implementing single-member district plans with one majority-Black district. We are working with two original plaintiffs (one now a county commissioner) and a city commissioner to advocate for equitable redistricting. The county commission and school board decided not to redistrict in 2021. The City of Starke passed a map in April 2022 and we will seek court approval.


Lead: Nick Warren; Other ACLU-FL attorneys: Daniel Tilley

Date filed

January 1, 1986


Middle District of Florida, Jacksonville Division


Hon. Marcia Morales Howard



Case number