Much research has been done on improving school climate to reduce violence and promote cooperation.

Social and Emotional Learning: Learning life skills to understand and manage emotions to more effectively interact with others. Working on skills like problem solving, teamwork, respectful disagreement helps students develop positive self-images, better control their emotions and resolve conflicts peacefully. Social and emotional learning programs have been shown to improve students’ social competence, self-awareness, connection to school, positive interactions with others and academic performance.

Restorative Practices: Promotes strong interpersonal skills and community building. Students take responsibility for their actions and for helping make the school a safe, welcoming place. Students are encouraged to repair the harm they have caused and to restore relationships. They are also taught problem solving and de-escalation skills to use in future conflicts. Adults also use preventative restorative practices to address problems that could spark misbehavior or conflict if left unaddressed.

Positive Youth Development: Informed by students’ developmental stage, this framework focuses on building student strengths and abilities, promotes students’ physical and emotional safety, sense of belonging, ownership and supports peer relationships.

Positive Behavior Supports: A framework for developing a schoolwide system of support that teaches and reinforces appropriate student behaviors. Schools focus on improving school climate and behaviors for all students, then develop targeted supports for struggling students.

Comer School Development Program: A nine-element process to foster positive school and classroom climate and create optimal conditions for teaching and learning. The program takes a comprehensive approach, looking at all the factors that influence student development, including school organization, school climate, curriculum and instruction and parent and community involvement.